In recent years, agricultural mechanization at home and abroad has entered a new stage of rapid development. At the same time, the safe driving operation technology of tractor drivers has become an important subject that cannot be ignored. The essentials of tractor operation, as the main link of tractor safe driving operation, is the content that every tractor driver must learn, know, and know.
1. Getting started
There are three keys to the start of the tractor: one is the size of the gas pedal; the second is the timing to relax the brake; the third is the cooperation of the accelerator and the clutch. When starting, first step on the brake pedal with your right foot, step on the clutch pedal with your left foot, shift the gear into low gear, then step on the accelerator pedal slowly with the forefoot of your right foot, and slowly release the clutch pedal with your left foot until the engine sounds When there is a change or the body shakes a little, quickly raise the right heel, release the brake pedal, and then slightly depress the accelerator pedal. In this way, the tractor can start smoothly. The key here is the coordination of the left foot and the right foot.
Note that the process of engaging the clutch should be fast and then slow. When starting, the clutch should not be lifted sharply. The clutch pedal should be loosened slowly. When driving, be careful not to step on the clutch pedal to avoid early wear of the clutch friction plate. The clutch has a semi-disengaged state, which reduces the wear time of the clutch friction.
2. Change gears
If the low gear shifts to the high gear, refuel first to increase the speed. Then, step on the clutch pedal and quickly move the gear lever to a higher gear. But if you switch from high gear to low gear, you should use two-leg clutch and one-leg oil control. Namely: reduce the accelerator first] to reduce the vehicle speed, then disconnect the clutch, and quickly shift the gear, and then raise the clutch pedal to put the lower gear. Finally, refuel steadily and the gear shift is complete. When the driver changes gears, he should keep his eyes on the front instead of lowering his head to shift gears. Because the moment when the vehicle is moving, the head is lowered and the gear is changed, accidents are prone to occur. At the same time, you must keep your body straight and not swing your upper body with your hands to relax your upper body naturally.
Note when shifting gears: Do not look left or right, or look down at the shift lever, and do not push or pull the shift lever to avoid damage to the gear. Pay attention to step by step when shifting, and can’t go beyond the gear. When changing gears, you should also pay attention to that, when changing the forward or reverse direction, you can shift gears only after the standby motor car has stopped. Changing gears actually changes the ratio of the engine speed to the speed of the drive shaft. The lower the gear, the greater the speed ratio. The torque and traction are also greater.
Conversely, the higher the gear, the smaller the torque and traction. Therefore, when the tractor is running, when the movement resistance increases and the traction force is required, the low gear should be selected. First gear and second gear can be used for temporary overload. For example, a low gear should be selected when going up and downhill to keep the vehicle speed even, and gear shifting is forbidden in the middle to avoid slipping caused by improper operation. The low-speed gear has low vehicle speed, high engine speed, faster temperature rise, higher fuel consumption, and increased driving costs. Therefore, the time to resist low-speed driving should be as short as possible. The middle gear is a transitional gear from low gear to high gear or from high gear to low gear. Usually, it is used when there is difficulty in crossing, turning, bridge or passing.
When the road conditions are good and the engine has sufficient power, a high gear should be selected. High-speed gear travels fast and saves fuel, but traffic safety must be ensured. When a tractor is driving, it needs to constantly change its driving speed as the environmental conditions change. Therefore, timely, accurate and rapid gear shifts play a great role in prolonging the service life of the locomotive, maintaining stable driving, and saving fuel.
When turning, slow down first before turning. For beginners, it is not allowed to turn sharply at high speed. If you need to make a sharp turn, you must follow the principle of “slow down, whistle, and drive on the right”. When making a slow turn, you should turn the steering wheel early and turn the steering wheel less frequently. When turning sharp turns, turn the steering wheel late and turn the steering wheel more. When turning small turns, you can use unilateral braking to assist you at low speeds. In addition, when turning, do not get too close to the inside. You should turn the steering wheel according to the degree of curvature and the distance of the roadside obstacles so that the inside rear wheels can pass smoothly and prevent the rear wheels from crossing the road and encountering obstacles.
When the tractor is driving backwards, it is necessary to use the rearview mirror, keep the mind focused, and use the low-oil door to decelerate, and must take care of the front and back, pay close attention to the presence of people and obstacles, and be ready to stop at any time. First of all, ensure that there is enough space for reversing. If the tractor needs to change direction when turning in reverse, the turning direction of the steering wheel should be consistent with the direction to be turned, so that the turning radius of the front turning in the original direction is smaller than the turning radius of the trailer, and the trailer can change direction. When the trailer turns, turn the steering wheel back to the right, so that the front of the trailer can be reversed straight in the same direction as the trailer.
When braking slowly, first reduce the accelerator, use the engine to brake, reduce the vehicle speed, and use the brake to brake intermittently. When braking suddenly, you should quickly step on the brake pedal, and then disconnect the clutch to stop within a short distance.
When temporarily stopping, the clutch and brake pedals can be depressed at the same time to realize temporary parking. When parking for a long time, after stepping on the clutch and brake pedal, lock the brake pedal and the engine stops. When parking, pay attention to first reduce the throttle and reduce the driving speed. Depress the clutch pedal again, place the shift lever in the neutral position, and depress the brake pedal to achieve a safe stop. After getting off the truck, use stones or bricks to hold the wheels against the tractor to prevent the tractor from slipping behind.
The above is the relevant introduction about tractor operation skills. With the rapid development of agricultural mechanization, more and more users buy tractors at home and abroad. Only when the tractor is used and operated correctly can the efficiency of the tractor be fully utilized, the use cost is reduced, and the tractor is extended life.